Louis Janmot was a student of Ingres, among others. His paintings reflect his staunch Catholicism. One of his major works was the 18-part Poem of the Soul. Exhibited at the 1855 Universal Exhibition, these paintings were apparently not well received.
Jean-Léon Gêrome: The Age of Augustus and the Birth of Christ
At the apex of this theatrically arranged study, Augustus Caesar sits in front of the Temple of Janus and touches the shoulder of a man personifying Rome. Surrounding him are scholars and statesmen while foreign tribes gather below. The Nativity scene in the foreground illustrates the coincidental moment of world peace under Augustus when Christ was born.
In 1852, Jean-Léon Gérôme received a state commission to paint a large mural of an allegorical subject of his choosing. In selecting this subject, Gérôme perhaps sought to flatter Emperor Napoleon III, whose government commissioned the painting and who was identified as a "new Augustus."
In preparation for his large mural, Gérôme traveled all over to find the appropriate ethnic types to portray the different peoples of the ancient world. When The Age of Augustus, The Birth of Christ was shown in 1855 at the Universal Exposition, his skill in depicting various nationalities led some to remark that Gérôme gave a lesson whenever he painted a picture. [Getty Museum]
Auguste Toulmouche (1829-1890) was a French painter who painted in the academic realism style. This trend in art was towards realism but also towards greater idealism, which is contrary to realism. The figures depicted were made more abstract and idealized. His themes were in the Regency revival style of genre painting. This would involve both generalizing the forms seen in nature, and subordinating them to the unity and theme of the artwork.
He studied with Charles Gleyre and is known mainly for his portraits of Parisian women; Émile Zola spoke of "Toulmouche's delicious dolls." He was made a Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. [Wikipedia]